The scholar most associated with the rules of stratigraphy (or law of superposition) is probably the geologist Charles Lyell.
The basis for stratigraphy seems quite intuitive today, but its applications were no less than earth-shattering to archaeological theory.
These techniques can be grouped as numerical, relative dating, and correlation.
Numerical techniques are best, but datable materials are often lacking, and in these cases age estimation must be made using relative-dating or correlation techniques.
Geologic studies of active tectonism are greatly aided by definition and time calibration of local stratigraphic sequences.
Because all dating techniques may be subject to considerable error, reliability should be assessed by stratigraphic consistency between results of different dating methods or of the same method.
For example, JJA Worsaae used this law to prove the Three Age System.
Correlation techniques are locally useful and depend on recognition of an event whose age is known, such as a volcanic eruption or a paleomagnetic reversal.
Any observable tilting or swirling is due to disruption of the process. Material that intrudes or cuts into a horizontal bed is assumed to be younger than the material that is disrupted.
Consider a lake that dries out or somehow contains older sediments that are washed into it.
Archaeologists use many different techniques to determine the age of a particular artifact, site, or part of a site.
Two broad categories of dating or chronometric techniques that archaeologists use are called relative and absolute dating.